Obesity is the most common disease all around the globe in the 21st Century. A human being has a few basic requirements to survive on this planet.
Those most basic requirements include clean air to breathe in, water and food. With the evolution of man, their needs for survival have also been modified for shelter, food, and clothes to wear.
Out of all of them, the most important without which anybody can’t even imagine staying alive are food and nutrition.
Eating healthy is a sign of having a better life and nutrition is part and parcel of our life.
Furthermore, A balanced diet includes some basic nutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins for the proper functioning of body processes, maintaining health, and keeping us active for performing daily life activities like playing, walking, running, reading, etc.
Moreover, Eating is important for life but overeating and undereating can bring with eating many lethal and dangerous problems.
INTRODUCTION TO OBESITY
Obesity is a medical condition in which the person becomes extremely heavy, fat, and stout.
The person having such an increased body mass may become more prone to many other lethal diseases so as the name “MOTHER OF ALL DISEASES”.
Doctors use criteria for measuring the appropriate weight according to age, sex, and medical status called a body mass index(BMI). An obese person can have their BMI increased up to 30 while normal is 18.5-24.9.
CAUSES OF OBESITY
The most common and understandable cause of obesity is overeating and minimal physical activity. Moreover, a sluggish and stagnant lifestyle often turns many ordinary people into obese.
Other causes may be ;
Obesity often runs in families as it has a genetic component and 40 % of obesity is due to genetic causes.
60% of obesity is due to environmental causes.
Less physical activity often leads to obesity. furthermore, today’s world offers more sophisticated tools to
reduce manual labor.
Insulin for diabetes, antidepressants, antipsychotics, steroid hormones, opioids, and antihypertensives often have side effects of weight gain (obesity).
The stress hormone cortisol is released in stress that increases the cravings for more food leading to more calorie intake and ultimately weight gain (obesity).
Junk food usually has an excessive and abnormal amount of fat and sugars in it which gets accumulated in our body leading to weight gain (obesity).
Leptin is an obesity-related hormone released from fat cells and it sends signals to the hypothalamus in the brain to regulate eating patterns and alter food intake.
Moreover; It is directly related to body weight more leptin is secreted if a man puts on weight.
In leptin resistance, a person is unable to feel satiety, and control is lost.
Culture includes your family, marital status, economic status, society you live in, age, gender, occupation, and education level which have different effects on eating habits and the type of food eaten.
Food having a high content of cholesterol and fats can prove poison for obese or overweight people.
Moreover; cholesterol level up to 100-129 mg/dL is acceptable but above this can be alarming especially in patients with cardiac diseases.
Excess body weight firstly makes the person inactive and lethargic, the person rarely can do any physical work. Moreover, many other health risks are associated with it which may include:
- Respiratory disorders, like sleep apnoea, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD
- Joint diseases such as arthritis, osteoarthritis,
- Cardiac diseases (acute coronary heart disease)
- Cancers of the breast, colon, gall bladder, endometrium, kidney)
- Liver problems and gallstones
- High levels of LDL (low-density lipids) and VLDL (very low-density lipids) cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipids (HDL)
- Sexual abnormalities I.e infertility, abnormal menstruation.
- Dysregulated immune system (increases susceptibility to different infectious agents)
- Gastrointestinal abnormalities e.g gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Psychological Problems Related To Obesity
Besides medical conditions, a person becomes depressed, discriminated against, and emotionally disturbed because of his body shape.
They face lowered self-esteem, society abandons them, usually find difficulty in finding jobs, and their quality of life is also compromised.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
Weight management programs should be joined to prevent obesity, a person should take part in daily life work, physical activities should be increased, and the diet should be controlled and altered to eat less and healthy.
Exercise is the easiest and most rapid way to lose weight.
A person should attempt surgical intervention only when all try to lose weight, or fail.
As a preventive measure, we should make habit of eating a healthy balanced diet, less calorie intake and being active so as to avoid obesity and its related health risks.